founder of this dynasty was one Mir Kamaruddin, a
noble and a courtier of the Mughal Muhammad Shah,
who negotiated for a peace treaty with Nadirshah,
the Iranian invader; got disgusted with the intrigues
that prevailed in Delhi. He was on his way back to
the Deccan, where, earlier he was a Subedar. But he
had to confront Mubariz Khan, as a result of a plot
by the Mughal emperor to kill the former. Mubariz
Khan failed in his attempt and he was himself slain.
This took place in A.D.1724, and henceforth Mir Kamaruddin,
who assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted
himself as an independent prince. Earlier, while he
was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad
Shah, the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf
Jah. Thus begins the Asaf Jahi rule over Golconda
with the capital at Aurangabad. It was only during
Nizam II rule that the capital of the Deccan Subha
was shifted to Hyderabad reviving its importance.
Asafjahi Nizams are generally counted as seven, though
they were ten. Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung, son and
grandson of the Nizam I who were killed by the Kurnool
and Cuddapah Nawabs and Salabatjung who also ruled
for a decade, were not counted by the historians though
the Mughal emperors at Delhi recognised them as Subedars
of the Deccan.
Nizams of Asafjahi dynasty who ruled the Deccan are
Mir Kamaruddin (Nizam-ul-Mulk - Asaf Jah I) (A.D.1724--1748),
(2) Nasir Jung (A.D. 1748--1751), (3) Muzaffar Jung
(A.D.1750--1751), (4) Salabat Jung (AD.1751--1761),
(5) Nizam Ali Khan - Asaf Jah II (A.D.1762--1803),
(6) Nizam III Sikandar Jah (A.D.1803--1829), (7) Nizam
IV -- Nasir-ud-Daula (A.D.1829--1857), (8) Nizam V
-- Afzal-ud-Daula (A.D.1857--1869), (9) Nizam VI --
Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan (A.D.1869--1911), and (10) Nizam
VII -- Mir Osman Ali Khan (AD.1911--1948 September).
Hyderabad was founded in A.D.1590--91 and built by
Muhammad Quli, the fifth king of the Qutbshahi dynasty,
it was a princely capital under them. The pomp and
peagantry of the fabulous Asafjahi Nizams gained an
all-India importance as well as World wide recognition.
The rule of the Nizams lasted not only for a much
longer period from A.D.1724 to 1948 but also concerned
a large territory with diverse language groups that
came under their sway.
authority of the founder of the State of Hyderabad,
Asafjah I, extended from Narmada to Trichinapally
and from Machilipatnam to Bijapur. During the period
of Afzal-ud-Daula (A.D.1857--1869) it was estimated
to be 95,337 sq.miles (2,46,922.83 sq.kms.), forming
a lateral square of more than 450 miles (724.17 kms.)
Nizam I, Asaf Jah, died in A.D.1748, there was tussle
for power among his son, Nasar Jung, and grandson
Muzaffar Jung. The English supported Nasar Jung whereas
Muzaffar Jung got support from the French. These two
heirs were subsequently killed by Nawabs of Kurnool
and Cuddapah, one after another, in A.D.1750 and AD.1751
respectively. The third son of Nizam I, Salabat Jung
became the ruler as Nizam under the support of the
recommenced in India between the French and the English
in AD.1758 on the outbreak of Seven Years War in Europe
in A.D.1756. As a result, the French lost their power
in India and consequently it also lost influence at
Hyderabad. In A.D.1762 Nizam Ali Khan dislodged Salabat
Jung and proclaimed himself as Nizam.
came into focus again when Nizam Ali Khan (Nizam II)
in A.D.1763 shifted the capital of the Deccan from
Aurangabad to Hyderabad. Such a move helped rapid
economic growth and expansion of the city, resulting
in its importance and prosperity.
A.D.1766 and A.D.1800, Nizam's sovereignty had declined
considerably and the British gained their authority
over the Nizams by compelling the latter to sign six
A.D.1766, the Nizam signed a treaty with the British,
whereby in return for the Northern Circars, the British
agreed to furnish Nizam Ali Khan with a subsidiary
force as and when required and to pay Rs.9 lakhs per
annum when the assistance of the troops was not required
in lieu of Northern Circars to be ceded to them. In
A.D.1768 he signed another treaty conferring the Northern
Circars to the British and the payment by the British
was reduced to Rs.7 lakhs. According to another treaty,
he surrendered the Guntur circar in A.D.1788. In A.D.1779,
the Nizam conspired with Hyder Ali of Mysore and the
Peshwa of the Marathas to drive away the English.
When they learnt about his designs, the English marched
against the Nizam who had to sue for peace agreeing
to the presence of an English Resident along with
army, artillery and cavalry at Hyderabad. Through
another treaty, the Nizam was compelled to disassociate
himself from Hyder Ali. In A.D.1800 yet another treaty
was signed by the Nizam with the British altering
the earlier treaties to increase the strength of the
English army in Hyderabad. In lieu of the cost of
maintenance of the force, the Nizam had to cede to
the company an area comprising the districts of Rayalaseema
and Bellary (now in Karnataka). With this the Nizam
lost not only the territory but also reputation and
East India Company acquired the Nellore region comprising
the present Nellore and Prakasam districts and a part
of the Chittoor district from the Nawab of Arcot in
A.D.1781. Together with the other parts of the territories
of the Nawab, this area was merged with the then Madras
Presidency of the Company in A.D.1801. Thus, by the
beginning of the 19th century, the Telugu land was
divided into major divisions: one that came to be
popularly called Telangana under the feudal rule of
the Nizam, accounting approximately one-third of the
entire land and the other, broadly designated as Andhra,
in British India.
was during the period of Nizam III -- Sikandar Jah
(A.D.1803--1829), that the English cantonment, raised
on the other side of Hussain Sagar, was named after
him as Secunderabad. This township grew rapidly as
the modern town with Railway station and other commercial
establishments. The notable events under the rule
(A.D. 1857--1869) of Nizam V, Afzal-ud-Daula, were
the construction of the Afzal Gunj Bridge or the Nayapul,
over the river Musi and the establishment of a General
modern era of the development of the twin cities began
soon after the last flood of the river Musi in A.D.1908
which had shattered the life of the people living
in Hyderabad. This necessitated the planned development
of the city in a phased manner. Sri M.Vishweshwarayya,
the great engineer of Mysore, was specially invited
for this purpose and was appointed as adviser to the
Nizam's Government to suggest measures for flood control
and improvement of the city. As a result of his suggestion,
Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were constructed in
A.D.1917. These two dams not only controlled the floods
from river Musi, but also supplied drinking water
to the city. These spots have also become recreational
centres for many people in Hyderabad. Another step
taken for the development of the city was the formation
of the City Improvement Board in A.D.1912, which paid
greater attention to the construction of roads, markets,
housing sites and shopping centres in the city. Nizam
VII, Osman Ali Khan, also moved to Kingkothi, the
northern suburb of the city in A.D.1914, which helped
in the development of its surroundings. Several public
utility services were commissioned in A.D.1922. Electricity
was commissioned in A.D.1923. In A.D.1928 with the
establishment of rail connection to Bangalore, the
city was brought on the metre-gauge map of India.
By A.D.1932 bus service was started in the city and
in A.D.1936 the bus routes radiated from the capital
to all the district headquarters. In A.D.1935, the
Madras-Karachi Air Service was linked with Hyderabad
with Hakimpet as landing ground.
buildings of utility like Legislative Assembly, Hyderabad
and Secunderabad railway stations, the High Court,
City College, the Asafia Library (present State Central
Library), the Unani Hospital, the Osmania University,
were constructed during the reign of Nizam VII.
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the founder of Hyderabad
City, Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam VII, can be called
as the maker of modern Hyderabad, in a variety of
ways. The buildings constructed during his reign are
impressive and represent a rich variety of architecture,
such as the magnificent Osmania University, synthesizing
the modern, the medieval and the ancient styles of
architecture. The sprawling Osmania General Hospital
in the Mughal style, the lofty High Court in Indo-Saracenic
style, the stately well-proportioned Legislative Assembly
building in Saracenic-Rajasthani style, symbolize
his desire to build modern and majestic Hyderabad.
The engineers or the architects and craftsmen of the
period have to be congratulated for their talent.
fascinating pretty edifice in the centre of the city
is the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly building,
with the lawns of the Public Gardens, to form the
noble buildings during the Asafjahis' period were
the Chow Mahalla during Nizam V, Pancha Mahal, and
the Falaknuma Palace. The Falaknuma, built by Nawab
Viquar-ul-Umra, a Paigha Noble in A.D.1892 at a cost
of Rs.40 lakhs, has become a land mark like Charminar.
hereditary Diwans of the Nizams, the Salar Jungs were
as colourful and dazzling as their masters. The Mir
Alam Tank, the Mir Alam Mandi, the Salar Jung Museum,
their Devdi, the Aliya School are inalienable parts
the Company and the Crown
naturally took some years for the East India Company
to consolidate and stabilize its rule in the Telugu
area, which came under its direct rule. In the initial
stages, the Company had to counter strong resistance
from the Zamindars in the coastal Andhra and the Palegars
in the Rayalaseema districts, that were in existence
from the ancient Hindu rulers or the medieval Muslim
rulers. The Company decided to use the Zamindari system
to its best advantage, entrusting the Zamindars only
with collection of land revenue and taking away from
them the executive and judicial powers. The Company
also introduced the system of `Permanent Settlement'
Rayalaseema, the first Principal Collector, Thomas
Munro, of the ceded districts suppressed all the Palegars
and established a new mode of collection of land revenue
directly from the tiller of the soil in A.D.1808.
This system came to be known as `Ryotwari' system.
administrative measures taken by the Company in the
rest of the Telugu land also led to similar changes
in the Hyderabad State of which Telangana formed a
major constituent. The famine of A.D.1777 and the
devastating flood in the succeeding year greatly impoverished
the State of Hyderabad and its economy was badly affected.
The unwise policies of the rulers led the State on
the verge of bankruptcy by neck-deep debts and the
Nizam was harassed by Arab and Rohilla bankers. In
such situation, the Company, through its Resident,
intervened and saved the Nizam. Thus, the Nizam became
a dependable friend of the Company and his support
to the Company in the crucial period of the War of
Independence in A.D.1857 (otherwise called Sepoy Mutiny)
turned out to be decisive factor in clinching the
issue in favour of the Company's rule in India. In
A.D.1858 the British crown took over the reign in
the entire India.
the British, who entered India in the early 17th century
as a trading company, gained power as its ruler for
over a century and a half.
role of the Andhras in the Freedom Struggle is next
to that of none and they had always been in the forefront
along with the rest of the countrymen. The first War
of Independence in A.D.1857 did in no way affect the
state of affairs in the south, though ripples were
felt in the State of Hyderabad, in the shape of a
raid by Rohilla and Arab soldiers against the Residency
and a rebellion by the Gonds in the Adilabad district
under the leadership of Ramji Gond. However, in A.D.1860,
the English suppressed all these rebellions.
rest of the 19th century passed away without any event
of major importance, though occasional rebellions
of the peasants here and there brought out their dissatisfaction
to the forefront. The introduction of English education
helped the formation of a strong educated middle class,
which found security of life in the Government jobs.
Agriculture became the mainstay of the people, as
the cottage industries, especially the cloth industry,
dwindled due to the deliberate policy of the Government
to encourage British industries and trade at the expense
of the indigenous ones. However, construction of dams
across the Godavari and the Krishna by A.D.1852 and
1855 respectively, resulted in increasing agricultural
production and helped, for a time, to cloud the real
beginning of the twentieth century saw the emergence
of the numerically strong, educated, confident but
dissatisfied middle class, seeking equality with the
white ruler. The dissatisfaction, as elsewhere, was
voiced in the form of pamphleteering. The foreign
government, ever vigilant in such things, sought to
nip it in the bud and as a consequence of it, repressive
measures were introduced. Gadicherla Hari Sarvottama
Rao (1883--1960) was the first victim of the move
in Andhra. He was sentenced for his seditious article
`Cruel Foreign Tiger'. The young men of Andhra had
their own share in the `Vande Mataram' and `Home Rule'
along with this agitation, a kind of constructive
work was also carried on by some fore-sighted leaders
such as Kopalle Hanumantha Rao (1880--1922). Long
before Gandhiji thought of the constructive programme,
Hanumantha Rao founded his `Andhra Jateeya Kalasala'
(National College) in Machilipatnam to train young men
in techniques of modern production, as he thought
that it was the surest way to win independence from
an imperialist rule which cared more for its markets
than anything else.
1920, when Gandhiji started his non-co-operation movement,
it had an immediate response in Andhra. Under the
leadership of eminent men like Konda Venkatappaiah
(1866--1948), Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu (1872--1957),
Bulusu Sambamurti (1886--1958) and Bhogaraju Pattabhi
Seetaramaiah (1880--1959), the Andhra young men made
many a sacrifice for the cause of the Nation. Many
practicing lawyers gave up their lucrative practice
and many a brilliant student gave up their studies
to respond to the call of the Nation. In November,
1921, the Congress gave permission to the Provincial
Committee to start Civil Disobedience if the conditions
laid down by Mahatma Gandhi were fulfilled.
episodes during the Civil Disobedience Movement in
Andhra attracted the attention of the whole country.
The first was the Chirala-Perala episode led by Duggirala
Gopalakrishnayya. He served for some time in the Government
College at Rajahmundry and the National College at
Machilipatnam. He was, however, not satisfied with
the kind of education that was imparted there. Moreover,
after attending the Calcutta Congress in 1920, he
was attracted to the programme of Non-co-operation
and resolved to dedicate his life to the achievement
of Swaraj. For this purpose he trained thousand disciplined
band of warriors and gave them the name `Ramadandu'.
He put them to test at the All-India Congress Session
in Vijayawada to maintain peace and order and the
All-India leaders were immensely pleased with the
kind of work they did.
and Perala were two contiguous villages in Prakasam
(then part of Guntur) district with a population of
15,000. The Government wanted to combine them into
a municipality in 1920. But the people protested against
this move because it meant imposition of additional
taxes. These protests were not headed to and the municipality
was constituted. As a protest against this, all elected
councilors resigned. The Government, however, carried
on the administration of the municipality with a paid
chairman. In January, 1921, the residents refused
to pay the municipal taxes. Several of them including
a woman were prosecuted, tried and sentenced to imprisonment.
This woman was considered to be the first woman in
the country to be imprisoned on political grounds.
After the All-India Congress session at Vijayawada,
Gandhiji came to Chirala. Gopalakrishnayya sought
his advice on the future course of action to be taken.
Gandhiji suggested two alternatives, (1) to continue
the No-Tax Campaign in a non-violent manner and (2)
mass exodus of people to the vacant areas beyond the
municipal limits. The second would automatically end
the municipality. But he made it clear that whatever
course they chose the Congress would bear no responsibility
and that they must stand on their own legs. Gopalakrishnayya
had enough confidence in himself and the people, and
in spite of the warning, he persuaded the residents
to move to the area outside the municipal limits and
raise temporary tenements which he called `Ramanagar'.
was an unprecedented step in the history of the country.
For eleven months people lived there in thatched huts
braving the severity of weather. Gopalakrishnayya
and his Ramadandu kept up the morale of the people.
Their aim was to establish a parallel government and
demonstrate to the outside world how Swarajya, as
conceived by him, would be like. He constituted an
Assembly comprising members elected from each caste
and established an arbitration court. Sankirtans
and Bhajans kept up the morale of the people.
He, however, faced financial difficulties and he went
to Berhampore in 1921, when the Andhra Conference
was in session to collect some money. There he was
prohibited to address the public meetings but he defied
the orders. He was arrested and sentenced to one year's
imprisonment and sent to Trichinapally. There was
no other person who could occupy his place. The Government
also took repressive measures against those who built
sheds on government lands. People returned to their
homes in the municipality at the end of eleven months
and reconciled themselves to its constitution. Though
the movement failed, the qualities of courage and
fearlessness they developed stood them in good stead
in the subsequent stages of the freedom movement.
were similar movements, though not of the same scale
or character, in Repalle and Vijayawada municipalities.
The Government was not obdurate and yielded to popular
pressure and took steps to redress their grievances.
next episode was the `Forest Satyagraha' of the ryots
of Palnad in Guntur district in 1921. The peasants
of this place had to pay heavy tax for permission
to graze their cattle in forests. When the crops failed
that year, they decided to send their cattle into
the forests without paying the fee and suffer the
penalties. They resorted to social boycott of all
government officials and refused supply of even the
bare necessaries of life to them. It did not produce
the desired change in the attitude of the officials.
They took the cattle forcibly, confined them in cattle-pounds
and refused to free them unless the fee was paid.
There was, therefore, clash between the cattle owners
and the armed police that was brought on the scene.
In the firing that took place one Kannuganti Hanumanthu
was killed. Meanwhile, Gandhiji called off the Non-Co-operation
Movement due to some untoward incidents at Chowri
Chowra and with this the Palnad Satyagraha also came
to an end.
No-Tax Campaign at Pedanandipadu in Bapatla taluk
of Guntur district was the third famous landmark.
There was considerable difference of opinion between
leaders like Konda Venkatappayya and Mahatma Gandhi
with regard to this campaign. Gandhiji wanted to try
the experiment first in Bardoli in Gujarat. The local
leaders, however, tried to convince him that the conditions
laid down for starting such a campaign were fulfilled
by the people of this place and they were very keen
on starting it. Gandhiji reluctantly gave permission
to proceed with it. In January, 1922, when the first
instalment of land revenue fell due, a non-payment
campaign was started under the leadership of Parvataneni
Virayya Chowdery. As a first step the village officers
were persuaded to resign so that no land revenue could
be collected. The Revenue officials could not collect
even five per cent of the demand of land revenue.
Repressive measures were resorted to movables, cattle
and even lands were attached for non-payment of land
tax, but none was present to bid them in the auctions.
Military was moved into the area to terrorise them.
These did not produce any result. The volunteers worked
day in and day out to maintain order and see that
no untoward incident took place. Before they proceeded
on further action, the movement was called off and
the local leaders gave up the No-Tax Campaign, and
the taxes were paid.
the movement was called off, it left the minds of
many young men sore and the disappointment took a
violent turn in one instance. A rebellion broke out
in the agency areas of the Northern Circars under
the leadership of Alluri Sitaramaraju (1897--1923).
He was a simple and unostentatious young man given
to studies of spiritual importance. He was keen on
the welfare of the lowly and the innocent. He contributed
his mite in the days of the non-co-operation movement
and later settled down among the hill tribes of the
Visakhapatnam district, spending his time in spiritual
practices. The misdeeds of a British contractor, who
took pleasure in under-paying the workers drawn from
the hill tribes, brought him into a tussle with the
police who supported the contractor. This led to encounters
between the police and Sitaramaraju, who was supported
by the hill tribes under the leadership of the Gamu
brothers. Sitaramaraju raided many police stations
and carried off guns and powder. The alien Government
then made use of all its resources to quell the rebellion.
A company of the Assam rifles under the leadership
of Saunders was sent there. The campaign lasted nearly
for one year from December 1922 and, in the end, many
of the followers of Raju, especially the Gamu brothers,
were overpowered in an encounter. The rebellion petered
off by October 1923. Raju surrendered himself, so
it was said, and was shot dead without any trial.
1930 when Gandhiji started his salt-campaign, the
broad east coast of Andhra became the venue of memorable
deeds of many a young man and woman, who in spite
of the severe blows of lathis, prepared salt and courted
imprisonment. The tremendous awakening, which was
an outcome of this movement, resulted in the rout
of the parties other than the Congress in the elections
thirties saw the emergence of leftist organisations
in Andhra which gave a fillip to the progressive trends.
Meanwhile, in 1939, the British Government dragged
India into World War II and the Congress ministries
1942, history moved with a quick and vigorous pace.
The arrest of the leaders at Bombay on August 9, 1942,
provoked the masses. The `Do or Die' message of the
National Congress inspired the people of Andhra, who
under the leadership of young but devoted workers,
brought the functioning of the Government to a stand
still for a few days. Many young students and workers
faced the bullets cheerfully, to swell the number
of those unknown, unwept, and unsung heroes of India
who died to make their country live.
moved on quickly and, on August 15, 1947, India achieved
its Independence. A new Constitution came into force
from the 26th of January, 1950, which envisaged the
new set-up of Government at the Centre as well as
at the States by duly elected representatives from
the people on an adult franchise.
Andhras all along their fight with the British authorities,
thought that the exit of the Britishers would facilitate
the early formation of the Telugu areas as a separate
State. But the Constituent Assembly had to decide
otherwise and this proved to be a bitter pill for
the Andhras to swallow.
and Social Developments
period of British rule in India forms a significant
chapter in the history of the ancient land. Many aliens
came to this land, conquered some parts of the territory,
but were soon absorbed as natural citizens of the
country. For the first time, the British (and the
other European nationals) who conquered and ruled
it for a considerable time remained aliens administering
a colonial rule and ultimately had to return. The
policy that underlined the various measures the British
took in legislative, judicial and executive fields
was only to tighten their grip over the country and
to exploit it to the advantage of their own motherland
the very measures they took had, curiously enough,
initiated and promoted many positive factors leading
to consolidation of the Indian society and their urge
for freedom. The colonial rule, of course, left the
country impoverished economically, but it unified
the nation, which was rudely shocked and, therefore,
prepared itself for a searching introspection. This
resulted in ushering in a new order, which almost
displaced the old one.
a constituent of India, Andhra region also received
its share of these negative and positive forces. Andhra
was noted, for a long time since the period of the
Satavahanas, for its cloth industry. In spite of several
political upheavals, the ports of Andhra had been
busy with incoming and outgoing ships of various countries.
Even in the early years of the British rule, Andhra
flourished as an exporter of fine varieties of cloth,
chintz, palampores, etc. Handicrafts and metal crafts
also formed a part of the exports along with cloth.
Narsapur, in the present-day West Godavari district,
was noted for its ship-building activity and some
of the Europeans also were customers at the place.
There used to be a great demand for indigo, an agricultural
product, available only in Andhra and in a few other
parts of the country. The over-all exports were far
ahead of imports in value and the region earned a
lot of foreign exchange, which enabled it to withstand
the severity of famines that ravaged the country often.
the Industrial Revolution which started in England
in the latter half of the 18th century, gradually
affected the cottage industries of Andhra as well
as those in the rest of India. England then turned
out to be a manufacturing country. By the aid of machines,
the English factories could manufacture finished articles
at a lesser cost than those from the cottage industries.
Further, the British being the rulers in the country,
discouraged the artists and craftsmen by imposing
heavy taxes. As a result of these measures the once
flourishing cottage industries and handicrafts of
Andhra languished and gradually vanished. The finished
articles that came out of the factories in England
were imported into Andhra and thus began the economic
drain which gradually impoverished the country and
enriched Great Britain. The synthetic method of preparation
of indigo by the western scientists, affected the
farmers very badly. The unemployed poor artisans in
the villages became agricultural labourers thus swelling
the ranks of those that depended on the land.
greater harm was caused by the `divide and rule' policy
of the British. The communal virus thus injected into
the political body of the country had vitiated the
relations between the Hindus and the Muslims to such
an extent that it forced the Indians to agree for
the division of India into two independent states.
Though Andhras living in the coastal and Rayalaseema
districts managed to keep away from this communal
divide, those living in the State of Hyderabad had
to undergo a lot of suffering in 1946--48 in the wake
of a fanatic struggle carried on by Razakars to carve
out the Nizam's dominions as an independent Muslim-dominated
State. However, the timely action by the Union Government
of Free India saved the situation.
as mentioned earlier, some of the measures introduced
by the alien rulers to safeguard their own interests
proved very beneficial to Indians. The political and
administrative unity brought in by the Britishers,
helped the various, linguistic groups to come together
and take pride in being the citizens of a great country
with common cultural traditions. The rail-road, the
telegraph, the telephone and the newspaper brought
all those living in various corners of this vast country
come together and to understand each other. This system
of communication also helped the transit of goods
from one place to the other and was of immense help
during the times of famine.
Britishers, wanted to keep India as a producer of
raw materials and as such harnessed the rivers by
constructing dams. The dam on the Godavari at Dowleswaram
was constructed in 1852 and the one on the Krishna
at Vijayawada in 1855. These naturally helped the
farmers of the delta areas, though they could not
solve the problem of poverty that tormented the people
must, however, be conceded that the foreigner's rule
had resulted in a renaissance that yielded fruitful
results in social and cultural fields. The introduction
of English as a medium of teaching in schools is the
main factor that contributed to this transformation,
though it was mainly intended to train Indians for
ministerial jobs. This new system of education, unlike
the old traditional one, threw open the gates of the
schools to all Indians irrespective of caste or creed.
A certificate from such a school served as a passport
for a job in the service of the Government. The Christian
missionaries from England and America also played
a notable part in spreading the system.
introduction of printing press in the State in or
about 1810 helped in bringing knowledge to the door-steps
of the ordinary readers. As a result, educational
activity in Andhra as well as in the rest of India,
was influenced by European literatures, modern sciences
and democratic ideas that sprung from the knowledge.
This knowledge brought out many revolutionary changes
in the religious and cultural fields.
contact with European thought enabled many Hindu leaders
to reinterpret Hinduism to strengthen it to withstand
the threat from the proselytisation carried on by
the Christian missionaries. The reaction to it resulted
in the founding of the Brahma Samaj and the Arya Samaj.
At the same time, Europeans such as Anne Besant, captivated
by the merits of the ancient Hindu and Buddhist thoughts,
founded the Theosophical Society. All these gained
some following in Andhra, especially among the educated
literature also underwent a sea-change under the influence
of the English writings. The credit for pioneering
such a change goes to Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu.
He was also responsible for bringing in many social
reforms, the main thrust of which was the upliftment
of the women's status.
these revolutionary changes in social and cultural
fields found their expression in the urge for freedom