Language and Literature
Telugu, the official language of Andhra Pradesh, is described by
C.P. Brown as the " Italian of the East ". It has been influenced by Sanskrit.
The prominent poets of Telugu include Nannaya, Tikkana,Sri Nathudu, Tenali Rama
Krishna, Sri Krishna Devarayulu and a host of others.
Urdu came to the Deccan, late in the 15th century. It flourished
during the reign of the Qutubshahi Dynasty. The 17th century was the golden age
of Urdu, with poets like Mohammed Quli, Mulla Wajhi, Sheikh Ahmed contributing
their literary pieces.
Dance and Drama
Kuchipudi, a blend of music and abhinaya, is Andhra Pradesh's
unique contribution to dance.
The dance styles in the State are based on the standard
treatises, viz. Abhinaya Darpana and Bharatarnava of Nandikeshwara, which is
sub-divided into Nattuva Mala and Natya Mala. Nattuva Mala is of two types -
the Puja dance performed on the Balipitha in the temple and the Kalika dance
performed in a Kalyana mandapam.Nattuva Mala is of three kinds, viz. Ritual
dance for gods, Kalika dance for intellectuals and Bhagavatam for common
place.The Natya Mala is a dance-drama performed by a troupe, consisting only of
men, who play feminine roles.
The earliest and the original Telugu drama was perhaps "
Harishchandra " by Veeresalingam. The commercial troupes started performing in
Andhra Pradesh with Dharvada company of Maharashtra, which toured in 1880. It
was followed by Sangle of Poona and Bawalivala Parsi of Bombay.
The Telugu stage had a galaxy of versatile actors like Yedavalli
Suryanarayana Rao, Uppuluri Sankiva Rao, Sthnam Narsimha Rao and a host of
After the advent of cinema, the magic of drama receded.
Fairs and Festivals
Hindu festivals such as Dasara, Deepavali, Sri Ramanavami,
Krishna Janmastami, Vinayaka Chavithi (Ganesh Chaturthi) and Maha Sivarathri
are celebrated in the State. But the celebrations of Ugadi (Telugu New Year's
day), Sankranti,Dasara and Vinayaka Chavithi in the state are unique.
A widely known festival in Telengana area that falls on Asviyuja
Shuddha Dasami (Sep/Oct) is the Batakamma Panduga. It is celebrated for nine
days by married women in memory of a Vaisya married woman, who was killed by
her own brother on the instigation of his wife. The murdered woman is believed
to have manifested herself in her grave as a flowering tree. The Mahankali
Jathara in the twin cities is celebrated at the onset of summer to propitiate
the local village deities so that pestilence does not strike.
Natural Resources and Agriculture
Andhra Pradesh has bountiful natural resources. Endowed with fertile land,
water and conducive agro-climatic conditions, it is an
agriculturally-prosperous state. The food grain production during 1999-2000 was
149.05 lakh tonnes as against the average of 122.68 lakh tonnes.
AP is the largest producer of rice in India. It is also the
leading producer of cash crops like Tobacco, Groundnut, Chillies, Turmeric,
Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar and Jute. It produces some of the finest varieties of
mangoes, grapes, guavas, sapotas, papayas and bananas.
Nearly 75% of its area is covered by the river basins of the
Godavari, Krishna and Pennar, and their tributaries. There are 17 smaller
rivers like the Sarada, Nagavali and Musi, as well as several streams. Godavari
and Krishna are the two major perennial rivers, and with their extensive canal
system, provide assured irrigation.
Till Feb. 2000, 1,00,542 progressive farmers have been trained
through Farmers' Training Centres.
The key strengths of the state, apart from the agro-climatic
conditions and extensive water sources are:
Large area under vegetables, fruits, flowers & plantation crops - 5,92,655
High average rainfall - 925 mm.
Large number of educational institutions - one agricultural university and 7
Strong R&D infrastructure with leading institutions like CCMB, ICRISAT,
NAARM, MANAGE AND NIRD
Andhra Pradesh At a Glance